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Physiotherapy, also referred to as physical therapy, is an allied health profession that makes use of bio – mechanics or kinesiology, manual therapy, exercise therapy and electrotherapy, to help patients restore, maintain and increase their physical mobility, strength and function. Physiotherapists are better able to help patients regain mobility, as they have a better understanding of how the body works and are trained in clinical skills to assess, diagnose and treat disabilities. Physiotherapists can help patients recover from injuries and disabilities ranging from back pain, neck pain, AND KNEES pain to ligament issues. Physiotherapy also helps in the rehabilitation of patients suffering from Parkinson’s, Paralysis, Stroke, Multiple Sclerosis and Cerebral Palsy. Furthermore, physiotherapists can heal both chronic and acute problems by treating patients at home.

At Sai Physiotherapy & Pain Relief Clinic it’s all about you.

Your problem, your pain and your customized solution.

We think the best Physiotherapist is one who actually listens to you and finds out what a good result would be for you. A result that gets rid of your pain and gets you back into what you need to be doing again faster. We think that our Physiotherapist’s at Sai Physiotherapy & Pain Relief Clinic do their best! Our key goal in Physiotherapy is to find out what is causing your problem. This is the tricky bit; it’s the bit we love. And then we will teach you how to keep the problem away from returning.

We will get you moving better with less pain Worried that your pain won’t go away or is getting worse?

We will get to the root cause of your condition – beyond the symptoms, because we don’t want you to spend your life on a treatment table. We will focus our recovery plan around what you want to achieve, whether it’s going on that dream holiday and being able to climb all those stairs, or simply wanting to wing back the clock to having a more flexible stronger body again.

How Physiotherapy can help you?

Frustrated that your problem just keeps coming back when you have seeking help in the past. At Sai Physiotherapy & Pain Relief Clinic, we teach you how to keep the problem from returning. We won’t hide behind complex explanations. You receive the knowledge and support you need to properly overcome your problem.

We will give you what you want:

We promise to actually listen to your story. Our key goal in Physiotherapy is to find out what is causing your problem. This is the tricky bit; it’s the bit we love. Using our vast Physiotherapy knowledge and experience you will get pain relief fast and learn how to get long lasting results!

Health advice

Physiotherapy is a great way to treat your pain or injury and keep it away. If you are looking for Physiotherapists that listen to your needs and help you feel better and back on track as quick as possible then Sai Physiotherapy & Pain Relief Clinic is the clinic for you.

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What has caused my back pain?

Sprains and strains of the muscles and tissues around the spine are the most common cause of low back pain. However, the truth is that we usually cannot pin point the exact structure or cause for low back pain. We do know the tissues in the lower back become inflamed, and the body responds with pain and muscle guarding as a protective response. This is normal, and is part of the response to look after the tissues and help them heal.

I didn’t actually do anything to cause it, so why does it hurt?

We are all designed with protective mechanisms to look after our body when there is danger to the tissues. If you hurt your back, it is normal to experience some pain and protective muscle guarding, which often changes our postures and how we move. In the first week or so after an injury, these protective responses are normal, however is some cases those protective postures and movement patterns can end up being a bit unhelpful, and can be a cause of pain even after the original injury has healed.

How long does it usually take to feel better?

Everyone is different, so recovery times are going to vary from person to person. At lot of minor low back sprains & strains will settle down over a few weeks; however, they can take up to 12 weeks to settle in some cases.

If it hurts to do things, then should I avoid them?

We know in most cases of back pain the spine itself is strong & sound, and does not need to be ‘protected’ further by avoiding movement and activity. It is widely accepted that complete rest is unhelpful when managing low back pain, whether that’s following an acute injury of with more persistent pain. In the first few days after an injury, it is better to reduce and modify your level of activity, however keep moving and stay as active as you feel comfortable. Normalizing movement will in fact help to settle down pain. Think of this as ‘relative rest’. Yes, you should avoid any strenuous activities that specifically aggravate your pain, but it is ok to move, even if it feels a bit uncomfortable.

Once I have hurt my back once, then will I likely do it again?

The short answer here is no. The body is extremely good at repairing itself, and as mentioned above things will usually settle down over a few weeks. However sometimes when in pain you can become a bit de-conditioned, so it may be helpful to do some movement and conditioning exercises to make sure you get back to the things you want to do.

Should I have a scan to check my back to make sure that I haven’t damaged my back badly?

So in most cases suggestions of ‘disc degeneration’ or ‘disc bulge’ that show up on MRI or CT scan are likely due to normal changes with age but don’t necessarily provide any helpful information about why you may be in pain. Any scan results need to be consider in context with the overall clinical picture. Scans can be helpful to exclude more serious pathology involving compression of spinal nerves or the spinal cord, or instability due to fracture, but these cases make up a very small percentage of low back pain.

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Neck pain is surprisingly common:

-> It is the fourth leading cause of disability in world.

-> Over 30% of us will have an episode of neck pain every year.

-> Approximately 50-75% of us will have a significant episode of neck pain in our lifetime.

It’s not all doom and gloom! For the vast majority of people who have an episode of neck pain, symptoms settle within a few weeks. Thankfully, less than 1% of neck and back pain presentations are serious.

What are the main causes of Neck Pain?

The wonderful complexity of the anatomy and function of our neck and the broad array of neck pain presentations can mean it is often difficult narrow down the cause of our pain to one very specific structure. In order to help understand and communicate a diagnosis, your health professional may categorize your neck pain in the following ways:

By structure:

The most likely structures involved with neck pain are:

-> muscles and ligaments that support the neck

-> cervical facet joints

-> cervical discs

-> neural (nerve) structures

Traumatic or atraumatic:

Simply referring to the degree of force that was required to cause injury.

Acute, chronic or episodic:

-> Acute pain refers to pain episodes that have lasted for a period of less than 6-weeks.

-> Chronic or persistent pain refers to episodes that have lasted beyond 12-weeks.

-> Episodic pain refers to recurrent episodes of the same type of pain and injury.

Here are our Top 5 major problems your stiff neck might be causing:

1. Headaches

2. Arm Pain

3. Pins and needles in your hand and arm

4. Tight upper back

5. Sinus pain

What increases the chances of getting neck pain?

Many factors are associated with an increased risk of the development or persistence of neck pain.

For example:

Occupation: particularly demanding or particularly sedentary work environments.

Lifestyle: poor general health and fitness (overweight, smoking), sedentary behaviors.

Age: most common in middle age.

Sex: more common in females.

Genetics: many diseases and disorders that contribute to back pain run in the family.

Previous injury: if you have had a previous episode of neck pain then you are more likely to experience neck pain.

Mental health: neck pain is more common and likely to be more persistent in those that suffer with mental health disorders such as anxiety and depression.

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The main causes of Shoulder Pain?

Strain, overuse or tightness of muscles

Like any area of the body, overuse or doing things that you are unaccustomed to may result in trauma to the muscles of the shoulder.

You might be pulling weeds or shrubs out of the garden, painting the walls and roof of your spare room or throwing the cricket ball to your kids in the nets for the first time in ages. This may result in your muscles getting sore for the days following your unaccustomed activity. Often this is not a big issue and your physiotherapist can advise you the best way to recover from this overuse.

However, there are occasions where a muscular strain may result and these needs to be managed appropriately to ensure you can get back to doing what you love, sooner.

Our work often requires us to do repetitive tasks or sustain postures for extended periods of time.

This may result in fatigue of the muscles of the neck, upper back and shoulders and as a result, these muscles may become tight and stiff.

There are some simple remedies for this including gentle massage and the application of a heat pack or wheat bag.

This can encourage those tight muscles to relax and the pain to reduce.

If these symptoms are persistent, your physiotherapist can help with strategies to correct your work postures as well as address any short term discomfort you may be experiencing.

The chances of getting shoulder pain?

1. Your age (unfortunately), due to wear and tear and overuse

2. Trauma- falls, sporting injuries

3. Activity levels/conditioning- throwing sports, overhead weights, lacking general strength and control

4. Occupation- repetitive overhead tasks e.g. painting

5. Hormonal Changes- may contribute to inflammatory responses

6. Connective Tissue Disorders

How is shoulder pain diagnosed?

An accurate diagnosis of shoulder pain is essential to ensure the most appropriate management in undertaken.

Skilled clinicians, especially Physiotherapist’s, will be able to determine what are the likely structures and pathologies that are contributing to your pain based on a combination of assessment tools at their disposal.

A thorough assessment will incorporate a thorough subjective history assessment which will provide a wealth of information regarding how the pain started, how long it has been persisting, what aggravates and eases the pain and determine how much this pain is impacting your life This information can guide the clinician and assist them to prioritize their assessment.

Do you ever suffer from pain that makes it difficult for you to exercise, or even do daily activities?

It’s frustrating to be limited in this way, and sadly, it’s something that happens to a lot of people. What’s even worse, is that sometimes you might go to see a health professional about the pain, and end up with a misdiagnosis that leads to treatment recommendations that don’t help you get better, and sometimes can make it worse. All too often people are told to stop activity, which can lead them down a path to total inactivity and less and less mobility. Sometimes rest is the best cure, and sometimes it isn’t. So let’s delve into one of the common problems that I come across, which is bursitis often of the shoulder.

It’s not surprising things can wrong with the shoulder joint, because it’s the most complicated join in the body.

You have the shoulder socket and the ball, and at any one time only 30% of the ball sits in the socket. As opposed to the hip, this has a really deep socket and sits inside snugly, so it’s a lot more stable. You can easily dislocate a shoulder because so little of the ball is in the socket. Shoulders need a lot of muscle control and coordination to control the ball in the socket. You just need one little thing to go wrong and the shoulder can start to give you pain. Your shoulder is very vulnerable if you are doing repetitive overhead movements of putting a lot of your body weight through your shoulders, like in cartwheels or push-ups, especially if something is not in balance. To avoid this, you need to learn how to move the shoulder and your blade correctly. We do a lot of training to make sure people know where their shoulder blades sit and how they move. If you have a clicky shoulder but it’s not painful, a lot of the time it will eventually it may become painful and become a full impingement. Shoulder pain at night in the shoulder and upper arm is common for many shoulder conditions. Some of the shoulder conditions that may present with pain at night include tendon injuries (tendinopathy) and rotator cuff tears, impingement and bursitis or arthritis of the shoulder joint. Pain in the shoulder at night can make sleeping difficult due to the discomfort that affects getting to sleep in the first place. Pain that may wake you when you are asleep. It may also keep you awake when you wake up in the middle of the night. It is often hard to find a comfortable position to sleep when you are experiencing pain.

Why Does my Shoulder Hurt More at Night?

There appears to be an inflammatory component to many shoulder conditions which tends to peak at night time when we are at rest. During the day, you are more active and you move your shoulder and arm much more, although you probably try to avoid the movements which cause you pain. We find that a painful joint feels better when it is gently moved which may be one reason why you have less pain during the day compared to at night. Lying on your painful shoulder can increase the pressure on the joint which can be aggravating for a shoulder that is already swollen, inflamed and painful. Long periods of compression on the inflamed joint may result from lying on the painful shoulder whilst in a deep sleep and this may further increase the pain.

How Can I Help My Night Time Shoulder Pain?

There are a number of things that you can try to reduce and ease the night time pain you are experiencing in your shoulder and upper arm. Avoid Sleeping on your Painful Shoulder Prolonged pressure on the painful joint can be aggravating for the shoulder. It can sometimes be difficult to avoid sleeping on your painful shoulder if that is the side you normally sleep on. Propping a pillow behind your back may help to reduce the likelihood of rolling onto your painful joint while you are sleeping. Increase the General Joint Range Gentle range of motion exercises can improve the overall joint health and may reduce the pain associated with stiffness of the joint. As with any exercise, don’t push your joint into positions which cause you more pain. This may increase the inflammation in the joint rather than ease your pain.

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About Your Knee – How does knee work!

Your knees play a key role in how you move about on a daily basis, how you play sport, how you exercise, how you work and how you get on with all the activities of life!

What does my knee actually do?

While your knee is a relatively simple joint, it performs a lot complicated tasks. From running, squatting, lifting, kneeling, twisting, going up or down stairs, and even just walking, there are a lot of processes at play. And your knee does this whilst carrying the weight of your body!

And a lot of the time just on one leg (for example when walking, a large part of your time walking is on one leg)!

Whilst walking down the street, our knees bear three to five times our body weight. With running and jumping this will be even higher.

You knee needs really good muscles around it to help support, shock absorb and guide the movement.

What problems can happen in my knee?

Many jobs, sports and recreation activities, getting older, or having a disease such as osteoporosis or arthritis increase the chances of having a knee problem.

Acute Knee Injuries:

-> Acute injuries are the most common cause of knee problems.

-> Sudden (acute) injuries may be caused by a direct blow to the knee or from abnormal twisting, bending the knee or falling on the knee.

Overuse Knee Injuries:

Overuse injuries occur with repetitive activities or repeated or prolonged pressure on the knee.

Activities such as stair climbing, bicycle riding, jogging, or jumping stress joints and other tissues and can lead to irritation and inflammation.

Over a long period of time this may lead to wear and tear around the knee and be a cause of osteo-arthritis.

Knee Osteo-Arthritis (OA):

Knee osteo-arthritis (OA) is the wearing of the articular cartilage that is the sponge like material between the two bony ends of the femur and tibia bones.

This happens gradually over time. Having a trauma or injury earlier in life can accelerate wear and tear of the knee, as can being over-weight, or even your genetics can leave you more likely to get OA of the knee.

The good news is that knee OA can be helped by Physiotherapy and following the right advice and exercises.


The chances of developing OA increases as we age. Most people over the age of 60 will have some level of OA, it just depends on the joints affected and the severity.

The changes that occur as we age increase the likelihood of OA being present, but the severity and pain of the OA affected joint seems to be more related to other factors including injury, obesity, genetics and joint biomechanical and anatomical factors.

As we age, the tissues surrounding the joints (tendons, ligaments, cartilage, bone and muscles) contribute to the development of OA due to changes within the cells themselves. These changes can lead to development of products that can change the mechanical properties of the tissues within the joint.

Due to this, OA is a condition that can also be seen in people as young as 20 or 30 years old.Changes in the ligaments, tendons, muscles, cartilage or bone due to trauma, injury or repetitive use, can start the changes we see as we age, and contribute to the development of OA.

It has been shown though that the development of OA in younger populations is much slower, meaning that at least for a while, the ability of the body to change and adapt to injury is much more efficient in younger populations than adult populations.

How Physiotherapy can help knee injuries:

Your Sai Physiotherapy & Pain Relief Clinic physiotherapists can examine your knee to determine the type, extent and causes of your injury.

Your Physiotherapist can discuss the injury with you and estimate the time it will take to recover. This will vary from weeks to months, depending on the severity of the injury.

Physiotherapy treatment is vital to hasten the healing process, ensure an optimal outcome and reduce the likelihood of a repeat of the injury.

What can be done to stop the pain?

Seeing an experienced physiotherapist is one of the best ways forward. A Physiotherapist will have a look at the mechanics of how you move and jump, strength of your muscles around hip, knee and ankle, and management strategies to continue to play your sport. As this injury is a long term loading issue, you will need to offload the tendon and modify your sport or activities. This may mean reducing your training load, or even as drastic as stopping you from playing to let it settle down. But you can discuss this with the physiotherapist and work out the best plan to move forward for you. Once it has settled, you can start to introduce more training. In the meantime, specific exercises will be given to help settle the tendon down. But be mindful that this takes time to improve and change the tendon, it will not happen overnight and it will require change in your activities, treatment sessions, home exercises and so forth for you to get the best outcome.

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What is elderly rehabilitation?

Elderly rehabilitation is maintaining and improving the general health and ability of elderly individuals. We commonly work with elderly patients helping optimize their quality and enjoyment of life. We will carry out a full functional assessment and work with you and your family to set realistic short and long term goals.

What are the benefits of elderly rehabilitation?

Being involved in an elderly rehabilitation programme can provide a number of benefits to you. The physiotherapists at Sai Physiotherapy & Pain Relief Clinic will devise a personalized treatment programme to help you achieve the following outcomes:

-> Regaining your independence

-> Maximize your safety

Reducing the risk of falling

-> Restoring your confidence

-> Improving your quality of life

-> Helping you to carry out activities of daily living

-> Improving mobility indoors and outdoors

-> Maintaining your muscle strength

-> Balance and walking re-education

Who will benefit from elderly rehabilitation?

Physiotherapy for elderly rehabilitation can be extremely useful if you have had a fall, accident or would just like to improve your independence and functional capabilities. The physiotherapists at Sai Physiotherapy & Pain Relief Clinic commonly work with elderly people who have:

-> Recently deteriorated in their mobility

-> Recently been discharge from hospital

-> Fallen or have a high risk of falling

-> Recently had an accident

-> Pain that is limiting them

-> Recently had an operation

-> An interest in improving their independence and functional abilities

An interest in improving their independence and functional abilities

-> Neurological conditions such as stroke and Parkinson’s disease

-> Cardiovascular conditions such as heart disease and angina

-> Falls

-> Fractures

-> Osteoporosis

-> Osteoarthritis and other arthritic conditions

-> Dementia and frailty

-> General weakness and reduced ability to do normal tasks

-> Reduced mobility


It is the fourth-largest cause of death and a significant cause of disability. Physiotherapists undergo advanced training to assess, treat and manage stroke patients. They scan help with:

-> Weakness or paralysis (hemiplegia) of the muscles on one side of the body. The ability to direct movements easily may be lost.

-> Weakness or paralysis (hemiplegia) of the muscles on one side of the body. The ability to direct movements easily may be lost.

-> Loss of feeling or the presence of unusual sensations.

-> Loss of postural and balance reflexes may mean difficulty in maintaining a sitting or standing position safely and limit walking ability.

-> Joints of the affected side may stiffen up due to disuse and become stiff, painful and tight.

Physiotherapists direct treatment at encouraging the brain’s ability to re-organize its pathways to make up for the damage from the stroke.

They position patients to minimize spasticity, make a mobility plan, practice sitting or standing balance, maintain joint ranges of movement, practice limb movements and functional tasks and advice on how patients should be handled to minimize injury and encourage recovery. Respiratory physiotherapy may also be required due to weakness of the chest muscles and the forced immobility in a hospital bed.

Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease is a degenerative condition caused by the loss of cells in a part of the brain that controls automatic movements. Typical symptoms are tremor, difficulty initiating movement, rigidity of muscles, slowness of movement and loss of facial expression. Physiotherapy for this condition focuses on improving posture, arm function, walking, balance and training on safely managing transfers from one position to another.  Physiotherapists use exercise and strategies to help initiating movement to improve independence and safety.


Falls are the most common cause of death due to injury in people over 65, with head injuries and fractures being the most common results. In people aged over 65, one in three falls each year and in people over 80; around one in two suffer a fall each year.

This works out at three million falls per year and of these, half will fall again within the next 12 months, with 10-25% suffering a serious injury. The leading cause of death in over 75-year-old persons is injury from a fall. Repeated falls lead to increased hospital stays, higher rates of long-term care and increased mortality.

After a hip fracture around half of sufferers are no longer able to live independently and fractures are increasing in number.

Programmes to improve balance and strength have been shown to reduce the risk of falls by up to 55%. Physiotherapists can assess physical problems that may contribute to falls risks, looking at muscle strength, balance, stability and mobility, and develop a programme of strengthening and balance improvement.

A physiotherapist will:

-> Find out any history of falls in the last year

-> Decide if one intervention is enough or the problem needs several complementary approaches

-> Plan a “high dose” exercise programme, involving over 50 hours work over six months

-> Add a high balance challenge component to the programme – it has to be difficult for the person to do to be useful

-> Work on strength and activity in three dimensions

-> Make the balance training dynamic so that the person can cope with the challenge that occurs just before a fall and prevent it.

-> Teach people to get up off the floor by asking them to practice it repeatedly to their ability

A multi-agency and multi-professional approach has been found to be the most effective way of tackling falls prevention. This may include acute hospitals, falls prevention teams, care homes, community and social services, housing teams and others. Interventions planned in this way have shown significant reductions in falls incidence.

An occupational therapist or OT assessment may also be useful as they take a wider view of the person, their activities and their environment. They can see the broader picture of how a person is coping within their home and advice on changes in activities, the use of products and the provision of equipment that may be useful.

Which? Elderly Care provides important information about falls prevention, common causes of falls, and a checklist to prevent falls in the home and useful organizations and website for dealing with a fall.


Osteoporosis is the loss of more than 30% of bone mineral density or BMD. Bone density falls steadily with age, particularly after menopause in women.

A smaller loss is known as osteopoenia and may progress to osteoporosis over time. Hip fracture from falling is a very common osteoporotic fracture and only around 30% of people fully recover from this.

Physiotherapists can help by devising exercise programmes to strengthen back muscles, encourage functional ability and increase bone density by promoting weight-bearing and balance activities.

Osteoarthritis (OA)

Osteoarthritis is the most common degenerative joint condition in the world and affects hundreds of millions of people. OA increases in frequency the older a person becomes and healthcare costs run into billions from disability costs and hip and knee replacements. Physiotherapists can advise on maintaining joint ranges of motion, increasing muscle strength, gait correction, the use of sticks and crutches, pacing activity and weight control.

Dementia and Frailty

With the increasing proportion of elderly people in the population over the next twenty to thirty years, the number of older people who are frail or have dementia will also rise. Physiotherapists can work with people with dementia to improve functional ability and teach relatives how to manage activity and transfers.

Regular Exercise and Activity

Older people who regularly engage in physical activity have been shown to reap many benefits, including better balance, increased strength, increased capacity for jobs, reduced blood pressure and cholesterol, weight loss and better memory. Exercise also improves mood and helps to reduce depression and anxiety conditions if performed regularly. Stretching and strengthening programmes, along with Pilates or Yoga, can be particularly helpful in keeping us physically strong and independent for as long as possible.Physiotherapists also work in health promotion, cardiac rehabilitation, incontinence and pulmonary rehabilitation with older people.

Last Page Our promise

We won’t hide behind complex explanations and we won’t treat you to death. If we can get youbetter, we will.

You receive the knowledge and support you need to properly overcome your condition. We believe that prevention is better than cure, which is why we go out of our way to keep things uncomplicated.

The single most effective tool we employ in the treatment process is open and clear communication so we can meet your expectations.

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